This book opens up a powerful debate on the future of the world order.
The military occupation of Iraq by the United States and their allies in Spring 2003 has confronted the United Nations with new and fundamental questions concerning its authority, prestige, working methods, efficiency, even the justification of its existence in the future. Besides the United Nations, it concerns the general international law as such, especially the rules concerning the maintenance of peace and the prohibition of the use of force, which are also the central provisions of the United Nations Charter and the fundamental norms of customary international law. Contemporary general international law is inextricably linked to the fate of the United Nations. The very foundations of the post-war world order, which were established during the summer months of 1945 after the end of the Second World War, have been shaken. As regards the evaluation of the new situation since 2003, there is no unanimity among the various nations of the world. This divergence of fundamental positions on the future of international order, which runs right through the members of the Security Council, causes structural uncertainties and tensions to an extent that was not anticipated.
The purpose of this volume is to reappraise the findings on the current situation and to give a differentiated picture of the international debate on the future international order.
Globalization is a controversial subject. While some argue that it promotes economic growth that translates into social progress, others believe that it is detrimental to social advancement. There is a broad consensus in the international community that all states should be urged to improve their social conditions, a position most strongly articulated in the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) declaration of the United Nations.
Globalization and the Millennium Development Goals brings together conceptual and empirical insights into the interaction of globalization and the social sectors, focusing especially on the MDGs. Some of the papers included here explicitly look at the Indian experience with social progress in the context of globalization. The volume with introductory remarks by Meghnad Desai, reflects the multifarious views regarding the interplay between economic development and social progress and attempts to answer the question: Can globalization have a human face?
The word security has a military connotation and refers to the activities involved in protecting or defending a country, in which the state has a central role. This book argues that the state provides as well as threatens security. Therefore, it needs to be checked and balanced by broadening the concept of security to include both military and non-military threats such as those related to social, economic, ecological and political causes.
The Indian economy continues to grow rapidly, taking in its stride poor harvests and rising oil prices. Industrial output, which had tended to be relatively low, has increased to double-digit levels, accompanied by rising levels of savings and investment. India’s healthy export performance has resulted in increased amounts of foreign exchange reserves, insuring against a large balance of payments (BOP) deficit in the future. An important factor in this process has been India’s relative political stability. Democracy is well entrenched and changes of government occur reasonably peacefully.
Is there a fly in the ointment? Could the growth process slacken or can it be accelerated further? What are the constraints to maintaining a high rate of growth over the next decade or two? These questions acquire special significance as we try to understand long-term growth in the current context of global economic slowdown. The papers in this volume seek to answer these questions.
Dalits participate in the Maoist Movement in a variety of ways – as party cadres, guerrilla fighters, loyal suppliers of food and shelter, and as both active and passive members of a host of revolutionary mass organizations.
Why did the Dalits of the Magadh region of South Bihar and, in particular, the district of Jehanabad, infamously termed ‘the killing fields’ join the Maoist Movement? Were they trapped between ‘two fires’ – the revolutionary and counter-revolutionary violence? Did all Dalit castes support the Maoists or was there any particular Dalit caste at the forefront of the struggle? What did they achieve through the Maoist Movement? What reasons do they give for their current state of demobilization? Rebels from the Mud Houses: Dalits and the Making of the Maoist Revolution in Biharexamines Dalit mobilization and the transformation of rural power relations in the context of intense agrarian violence involving Maoist guerrillas and upper caste militias backed by state forces in Bihar in the 1980s. The book investigates why thousands of Dalits took up arms and participated in the Maoist Movement. It explores the dynamic nature of Dalit response which involved a movement from relative quiescence to mobilization and armed resistance, and eventually, to demobilization and alternative assertions based on caste identities.
Rebels from the Mud Houses highlights the specificities of Dalit participation in the Maoist Movement and develops an anthropology of the Maoist Revolution in India.
Rebuilding Buddhism describes in evocative detail the experiences and achievements of Nepalis who have adopted Theravada Buddhism. This form of Buddhism was introduced into Nepal from Burma and Sri Lanka in the 1930s, and its adherents have struggled for recognition and acceptance ever since. With its focus on the austere figure of the monk and the biography of the historical Buddha, and more recently with its emphasis on individualizing meditation and on gender equality, Theravada Buddhism contrasts sharply with the highly ritualized Tantric Buddhism traditionally practiced in the Kathmandu Valley.
Based on extensive fieldwork, interviews, and historical reconstruction, the book provides a rich portrait of the different ways of being a Nepali Buddhist over the past seventy years. At the same time it explores the impact of the Theravada movement and what its gradual success has meant for Buddhism, for society, and for men and women in Nepal.
A large body of standard literature on regulation has grown organically in response to the markets in the United States and Western Europe. The twelve papers in Regulation, Institutions and the Law try to understand the specific context within which regulation has unfolded in a country like India, which is different in many ways from that of the United States and Western Europe. The volume also dwells on how these regulatory issues flow across national boundaries and affect the international arena in this age of globalization.
Resistance and the State: Nepalese Experiences uses ethnographic case studies to explore healthcare programmes, forestry, national parks, political parties, and ethnic revivalism. This fascinating and readable book also gives a graphic description of conflicts over the interpretation of history, and various perspectives on the Maoist insurgency that has taken control of large parts of rural Nepal since 1996. This is arguably the longest and most widespread Marxist rebellion that South Asia has known.
The contributors to this volume illuminate the complex relationship — sometimes wary, sometimes accommodative, and sometimes violent — between a modernizing, developmentalist state, and the people it professes to represent and benefit. This book will be of immense value both to experts — political scientists, historians, sociologists, and anthropologists — and to the general reader.
Sabotage is a collection of short stories selected carefully from over one hundred of Anita Agnihotri’s published short fiction. The stories deal with politics of all genres of class, regions, ideologies and human relationships. Together they bring up a vivid image of the country and its people; of the advancing civilization that is embedded in the reality of voiceless submergence. Literary craftsmanship is combined here with a sensitivity of perception that is pan-Indian.
This is Tamil Nadu’s first Human Development Report. Tamil Nadu has fared very well in human development among the states in India. It needs to be noted, however, that there are vast variations in the indicators of human development within the state itself.
Factors contributing to human development are disaggregated in this Report, and analysed at the district level. This will enable readers to understand the regional disparities in Tamil Nadu and the reasons behind them. The Report not only puts within one cover, all the various aspects of human development in Tamil Nadu but also seeks to explain why the state has fared well in certain areas and not in others. It also highlights the policy interventions that will be required to correct the imbalances.
Tamil Nadu Human Development Report is a balanced and objective account of the state’s performance and as such, will be of immense value to those planning for growth, social justice and equity in the state, as well as researchers and students of social sciences in university departments and other institutions.